Printed scores: Naming of instruments

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Born in Frankfurt/Germany, Tobias from his studio works as a composer, orchestrator and arranger for media projects as well as an educator in the field of music technology, notation and music theory. Read more...
Does the following situation sound familiar to you? On recording of some live brass you distribute the parts to the players. Each part has more than one page - and then the nightmare happens. Someone opens the door and the parts all sail to the floor. And because all the trumpets have just „Trumpet“ as their part name, you have no idea which piece of paper belongs to what part. You spend valuable time sorting everything again.

When creating parts for performance, make absolutely sure that _every_ page contains:
- Part name („Trumpet in Bb II“)
- Page number and total pages („2 of 4“)
- If you have more than one piece, the name of the piece („My absolutely stunning Brass piece“)
- Your name (just to exclude the possibility for there being more than one piece with the same title)
- If there are doublings, write them somewhere at the top („Flute II / Piccolo Flute“)

It is also _highly_ advisable to write exact instrument names, so not just „Trumpet“, but „Trumpet in Bb III“. From the second stave on you do not need abbreviated instrument names, but if you do, also call it „Trp. III“, not just „Trp.“. You never know if the sheets get mixed up and this allows you to see which part the piece of paper belongs to at a glance.

Lastly, forgo _any_ fancy graphical effects. This stuff needs to be readable. No Comic Sans for any text!
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Control several macs with Teleport

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I don’t know about you, but I keep my work rig strictly separated from all the other tasks. For everything that is not composing, I have an iMac. This most of the time works great, but there are situations where the worlds collide, so to speak: I have an extensive iTunes library with reference tracks. So when I want to look a track up, I used to need to switch to a different mouse and keyboard. Until the day I found Teleport.

Teleport lets you control your machines with a single mouse and keyboard. When you come to the edge of your screen, control will be transferred to the next machine. I have been using it for years and it works absolutely flawlessly! Teleport supports file exchange between machines in the same network. No need to open the finder, connect to your other machine and trasfer files - just drag and drop files from one screen to the next!

Check Teleport out for yourself, I think it will speed up your workflow a lot!
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Link Tip: Intro to Mastering by iZotope

Mastering is one of the most mysterious aspects of music production. Today, a media composer needs not only deep knowledge of composition and music theory, but also needs to be able to make his/her tracks sound good. After mixing, „mastering“ describes the process of creating a production-ready final stereo mixdown. Mastering is an art and in an ideal world is left so a third party professional. But we don’t live in a perfect world and it is a fact that most of us need to master most of our tracks ourselves. Even for just demos and quick „show-off sketches“, you should always spend time making it sound as good as possible.

I use iZotope Ozone 4 for mastering, which has proven to be a very powerful and versatile tool. iZotope, the makers of Ozone have written a very good introduction paper to mastering in general, but focused on Ozone called Mastering with Ozone. It is based on Ozone 3, but everything works perfectly with version 4, too. Even if you do not have Ozone, this pdf is well worth a read if you want an easy to understand introduction into the world of mastering.

I will touch on mixing and mastering in later posts - and I’ll do my very best to keep them coming at a steadier rate. Work went in the way, which is a good thing, after all :)
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Very High Notes out of Nowhere

Most players, especially brass players, find it hard to play very high notes without any preparation. Try to avoid having anyone come it in extreme ranges. This also applies to the lowest range in most instruments. If you want to have very, very high trumpets after they have been silent for some time, at least give them a few quiet lower notes so they can prepare. The higher it gets, the harder the embouchure is for brass players because of less space between the harmonics. For very skilled players, very high notes out of nowhere usually are not a big problem, but it always adds a bit of insecurity. Besides, is it plain rude to stress people like that. Usually you can find some way to circumvent high notes out of nowhere.
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Sampled instrument volume

While any kind of sampled instrument is a great tool and can be very useful for composing, there is one thing that creeps up again and again: Instrument volume.

On many libraries, especially low to mid-price, the development of the overall volume of an instrument is not correctly set. Most instruments have a part of their range where they are pretty quiet as well as a part where they really shine. In some libraries, the whole range of an instrument has the same volume. This leads to lines that can be perfectly heard in the sampled version to not come out at all when played by real instruments.

The best example perhaps is the flute, which is very quiet in its lower register (from Middle C (C4) to about E5), but gets really loud after that. Ranging up to C7 (sometimes even higher, depending on the player), it is very piercing and easily can be heard over the rest of the orchestra. When writing for the flute, keep in mind that it is very ineffective in its lower range. You can use it in this range to add a special shine to strings, but this only works on quieter passages.

The same appies to other instruments as well. Also keep in mind that with real instruments you cannot just crack up the volume to make it loud! You can use unnaturally loud instruments as an effect and this is commonly used in sampled music, but as soon as real people have to play your piece, it won’t work.
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Dealing with clicktrackophobics

Inexperienced players sometimes have difficulties with playing to a click, especially if they are from a classical background. Their playing becomes very stiff and unemotional. In rare cases it can also happen that people are constantly playing in front of or behind the click. This comes from the habit of with classical orchestras the conductor sometimes deliberately being in front of the orchestra in his conducting. Of course with a click track, everything should be dead on, but its hard to do that if you are used to another way.

If their performance really suffers from clicktrackophobia (I made that word up), you might try a pass without the click. Now its the job of the conductor (you?!?) to keep them in tempo. Actually, this makes recordings much more natural, but it takes a great deal of practice on the part of the conductor. Try rehearsing it at home with the aid of either a live recording or a file from your notation software. It also helps - and I recommend it - to have all players leave one ear uncovered. This allows them to hear much better what those around them are doing as well as hear their own instrument better. But remember: If you are recording seperate sections, you need the click track!
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Live percussion, done yourself

Even a single live instrument can spice up a track considerably. Doubling a line played by VI violin section with one live player adds a tremedous depth to the music, as you will know. But unless you play the instrument in question really well, you need to hire someone to play the stuff, which costs money. Money you very likely do not have.

I have found that with most small percussion instruments, in the context of a large ensemble, you can get away with only moderate playing skills, enabling you to do the part yourself. What I like to do is use sampled big percussion (timpani, bass drum, tamtam,...), but record the small stuff (bongo, triangle,...) myself. You can find lots of nice percussion on yard sales for unbelieveably low prices. Lots of people sell perfectly fine instruments this way. Get out of the house (scary thing to do for a composer, I know) and buy a bunch of percussive instruments for your arsenal. Get a nice microphone (I love my Oktava MK 012) and start recording.
Of course, percussion samples very well, so almost all of the sample libraries you can get are very, very good. But still, I think nothing beats a live performance.

For light drum tracks try recording yourself playing a cajon. Done right and with a bit of post-production it sounds very much like a real drum kit and for quieter tracks works very well. Playing errors can easily be corrected later on with Flex Time in Logic, so if you are not always dead on, don’t worry.
Have a listen to the track UH Gameplay 3 on my Soundcloud channel. There is a live cajon, heavily EQed. For the most time, programming all the subtle dynamics and maintaining the groove involved in a percussion track takes far longer than just playing the thing in and correct a few timing errors. Try it out for yourself!
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Principles of Orchestration on Northernsounds

Today I have a link tip for you:
If you want to learn more about Orchestration, you have lots of possibilities at your disposal. By far the best of course is to take private lessons (preferably with me - shameless plug^^), because nothing beats pestering some real person with questions.
The second best approach are books of which there are many, some of them I will discuss in a later post.

One famous book is by composer Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov, called „Principles of Orchestration“. You can buy it as a book, but the fine folks at Northernsounds took the time to painstakingly prepare an online version, which is available on their forum. You get the real deal, with lots of interactive content. Korsakov’s book primarily deals with classical romantic orchestration, but 99% of this applies to film music just perfectly. Reading the book will give you a deeper understanding of how the orchestra works and your music will most certainly benefit from it.

So head over to Northernsounds - Principles of Orchestration and become a better orchestrator!
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Choosing which instruments to record live

You will constantly have to face budget cuts. If they tell you beforehand, you'll be fine most of the time. Where it gets really annoying is if they do after you've written lots of music and then you are told that they need to cut the budget for recordings, which means: Fewer players.

When deciding which instruments to record live and which have to done with samples, there are two big questions:
1) What is your kind of music? If you feature a solo instrument quite heavily, you should record that one live under all circumstances. For ensembles, think about using one or two real instruments per type and making it bigger with samples.
2) Which instruments can you replicate will with samples. In most cases, percussion can be done with samples, if necessary. One exception would be the timpani, they tend to sound better with real players. A piano, if only used for support and adding rhythm, can also be sampled pretty well. I'd tend to retain the brass section; if your piece has lots of soaring brass, it might actually be cheaper to hire real players then to spend ages programming samples.

Also never forget that any piece will only sound as good as its arrangement - if your piece is not arranged very good, even the best live players cannot make it sound good. So double check your arrangements before recording :)
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Think in groups of bars

Even if it may seem outdated and soooooo "classical" to you: There is a reason why most composers think in groups of 2, 4 or 8 bars when writing lines. A melodic arch consisting of an even number of measures, with two parts of the same length is pleasing to the listener. It allows you to let phrases flow. Because the listener hears a familiar form, s/he can concentrate on listening to the things that make your particular music special. Instead of focusing on the alienness of an unfamiliar structure, there is room for a deeper emotional connection. Of course there are situations where you will want to break that "rule", but in general try to stick to it.
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Sealed Headphones vs. Leaking

Leaking is a big problem when recording, especially with quieter passages. What is leaking?
Leaking means that you can hear a bit of the headphones on the recording. Some people then proceed to use totally sealed headphones. But these make your players play badly because they cannot hear themselves when wearing them. If you have big problems with leaking and need to use sealed headphones, at least let them wear it only over one ear and leave the other uncovered. If you have the technical possibilities to do so, better automate the headphone mixes so they go down on very quiet passages and go out nearly completely when the players have a very long break (you can of course just edit those parts out anyway). You can have them come in with a count-in a few bears before the player has to resume playing. This is complicated, though and you need to make sure the technology performs up to your standards!
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Major is not the only mode

This one is for my music students, who constantly surprise me by only using Major chords :)

It is quite funny to see how lots of people seem to forget there are other modes, too. Use them! Take minor, for example: Even if your piece is not set in minor, you can and should nevertheless use minor chords in it. The minor parallel of a chord can easily be used as a replacement. If you want to use F Major, but do not want to stress this resolution to the tonic so much, use the parallel minor chord of d minor instead! You can also use minor chords for starting modulations into other keys. Also, keep in mind that minor chords sound different from Major chords, but not necessarily "sad". This is what they told you in elementary school, because it simplifies things nicely. Trust your ear!

Not to mention the existence of church modes... these are a totally different world and incredibly useful and will be the topic of a later tip.
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Quantizing audio in Logic Pro 9 with Flex Time

Most of the MIDI-centered composers I know (including me) tend to mostly ignore any audio-related new features in software because we generally do not need them. Recently I needed, or rather had the joy to, record some live percussion. Most of the time everything was dang on, but sometimes it just didn’t groove!
I then remembered the new Flex Time in Logic 9 and liked the results so much I wanted to tell you :)

Flex Time in Logic Pro 9

If you set the Flex Mode on an audio track, Logic will analyze the material depending on the mode you are in. For percussion, „Rhythmic“ is the correct mode. You can then move single notes/hits around just like you can do with MIDI data in the Piano Roll. Very, very useful and the results are great.
Maybe that’s old news for you, but I was pleasantly surprosed and secretly vowed to from now on make sure I try out ALL new features on software.

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Find suitable instruments

When having someone play something, of course the most important thing is that this person knows his or her trade. But you should not forget the influence of the actual instrument. Usually performers have their own instruments, but it can happen that they need to use an instrument provided by someone else. If then the results are far less satisfying than expected, it may have to do with them playing a different instrument. They might not be familiar with this particular instrument, which most of the time isn't a big deal: Give them a few minutes and carry on.

In some cases, however, the instrument itself may just not have the right sound for the project. With stringed instruments it usually comes down to the strings used. Use different ones and try again. Woodwinds and brass have temperature issues. Besides affecting the tuning, they also sound different when they do not have the right temperature. If the sound of the instrument doesn't fit at all (happens rarely, but it can), try to get another instrument. EQing and editing later doesn't do the trick most of the time, unfortunately! You can also try to add some samples instruments later combining the best of both worlds.
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LogicBlog - Tips and Tricks for Logic Pro

As you probably know, Logic Pro is my DAW of choice. I am constantly learning new things and am always surprised what Logic Pro is capable of.
There’s a fairly new blog, the LogicBlog, with lots of tips and tricks for Logic Pro. I learned some great things there and I hope it is useful to you, too.
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Very long breaks in scores

Sometimes you have scores with very, very, very long breaks for some instruments. This may for example happen with large backing bands only playing during the chorus. You should of course tell these folks when they need to come in again (most notation applications will write one bar and put the number of silent bars in it), but if they have a break of 30 bars or so, noone will actually count!


silent bars in Sibelius

This is where you need to use cues: Look for an easily recognizable part someone else is playing directly before your players have to come in again and write it in the parts in cue notes (smaller notes). The players need to hear the cue part, so choose someone they can hear (very loud, sitting near them, ...) This will help them find the place. Also make absolutely sure the conductor (or whoever may be responsible for leading the players) gives them their entrance very clearly, i.e. by making eye contact one bar before they need to come in.


cue notes

It can also help greatly to mark sections in the parts, even if the players have nothing to do. It helps them keeping track of where they are:



In this image you can see that we have an 8 bar verse, followed by an 8 bar chorus. If the player has to come in right after the chorus, s/he will have no problems finding the entrance.

If you have a song and players have to play only the chorus or so, you usually do not need to write down the exact number of silent bars. Give them a brief decription „Chorus only!“ or something along these lines and make sure to rehearse their entrances.
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Free Harpsichord and Organ libraries

When I was looking for some nice harpsichord samples last year for a project, I stumbled upon Sonimusicae.
They have a nice selection of Harpsichords, Organs and other instruments - and best of all, they are free. The samples are pretty good. Considering the price, they are awesome :)
There is also a nice clock, which is very useful for sound design (you can hear it in my track „Time Machine“). So if you are looking for some samples to expand your sonic palette, look no further and head over to Sonimusicae!
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Give them their first beat!

One thing that annoys musicians tremendously is composers writing a nice, soaring line for them, but not allowing them to play a last, short note on the first beat of the next measure when their line has ended. Somehow we are internally wired to expect our parts to finish on a first beat. The most prominent example of this is the end of most pieces: After a (lengthy) final cadence they tend to end with a big "bang" on a first beat. Try to compose this way in the whole piece and your players will have much more fun playing your stuff!
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Regular Captivating Bits - starting right now!

For me, helping each other is an important thing. I believe in learning by doing and I think that you should never stop learning new things. I regularly help people out with quick tips which - according to them - have made their life easier. So why not share all this with you! There are lots of little tips and tricks that can make you a better composer or artist.

So here are the „Regular Captivating Bits“, where you will find all sorts of quick tips, hints and lots of other stuff. Basically, this will be the place for everything I want to tell you which does not fit on the blog. This page will be updated quite often, with the tips coming from every aspect of music production you can imagine: composition, orchestration, arrangement, business, software tips, links to great resources and many, many more things! So check back and give me your feedback!
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